# Machine Learning with vaex.ml¶

The vaex.ml package brings some machine learning algorithms to vaex. If you installed the individual subpackages (vaex-core, vaex-hdf5, …) instead of the vaex metapackage, you may need to install it by running pip install vaex-ml, or conda install -c conda-forge vaex-ml.

The API of vaex.ml stays close to that of scikit-learn, while providing better performance and the ability to efficiently perform operations on data that is larger than the available RAM. This page is an overview and a brief introduction to the capabilities offered by vaex.ml.

[1]:

import vaex
import vaex.ml

import numpy as np
import pylab as plt


We will use the well known Iris flower and Titanic passenger list datasets, two classical datasets for machine learning demonstrations.

[2]:

df = vaex.ml.datasets.load_iris()
df

[2]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0
... ... ... ... ... ...
1455.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0
1465.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0
1475.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1
1485.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0
1496.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1
[3]:

df.scatter(df.petal_length, df.petal_width, c_expr=df.class_);


## Preprocessing: Scaling of numerical features¶

vaex.ml packs the common numerical scalers:

• vaex.ml.StandardScaler - Scale features by removing their mean and dividing by their variance;
• vaex.ml.MinMaxScaler - Scale features to a given range;
• vaex.ml.RobustScaler - Scale features by removing their median and scaling them according to a given percentile range;
• vaex.ml.MaxAbsScaler - Scale features by their maximum absolute value.

The usage is quite similar to that of scikit-learn, in the sense that each transformer implements the .fit and .transform methods.

[4]:

features = ['petal_length', 'petal_width', 'sepal_length', 'sepal_width']
scaler = vaex.ml.StandardScaler(features=features, prefix='scaled_')
scaler.fit(df)
df_trans = scaler.transform(df)
df_trans

[4]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ scaled_petal_length scaled_petal_width scaled_sepal_length scaled_sepal_width
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 0.25096730693923325 0.39617188299171285 0.06866179325140277 -0.12495760117130607
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 0.4784301228962429 0.26469891297233916 0.3109975341387059 -0.12495760117130607
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 0.4784301228962429 0.13322594295296575 0.9168368863569659 -0.3563605663033572
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 1.1039528667780207 1.1850097031079545 1.0380047568006185 0.5692512942248463
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 -1.341272404759837 -1.3129767272601438 -0.4160096885232057 2.6518779804133055
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1455.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 -1.341272404759837 -1.3129767272601438 -0.7795132998541615 0.8006542593568975
1465.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 -1.2275409967813318 -1.3129767272601438 -0.9006811702978141 1.726266119885101
1475.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 0.13723589896072813 0.0017529729335920385-0.052506077192249874-1.0505694616995096
1485.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 -1.1706752927920796 -1.18150375724077 -0.17367394763590144 1.726266119885101
1496.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 0.30783301092848553 0.13322594295296575 0.4321654045823586 -0.3563605663033572

The output of the .transform method of any vaex.ml transformer is a shallow copy of a DataFrame that contains the resulting features of the transformations in addition to the original columns. A shallow copy means that this new DataFrame just references the original one, and no extra memory is used. In addition, the resulting features, in this case the scaled numerical features are virtual columns, which do not take any memory but are computed on the fly when needed. This approach is ideal for working with very large datasets.

### Preprocessing: Encoding of categorical features¶

vaex.ml contains several categorical encoders:

• vaex.ml.LabelEncoder - Encoding features with as many integers as categories, startinfg from 0;
• vaex.ml.OneHotEncoder - Encoding features according to the one-hot scheme;
• vaex.ml.FrequencyEncoder - Encode features by the frequency of their respective categories;
• vaex.ml.BayesianTargetEncoder - Encode categories with the mean of their target value;
• vaex.ml.WeightOfEvidenceEncoder - Encode categories their weight of evidence value.

The following is a quick example using the Titanic dataset.

[5]:

df =  vaex.ml.datasets.load_titanic()

[5]:

# pclasssurvived name sex age sibsp parch ticket farecabin embarked boat bodyhome_dest
0 1True Allen, Miss. Elisabeth Walton female29 0 0 24160211.338B5 S 2 nanSt Louis, MO
1 1True Allison, Master. Hudson Trevor male 0.9167 1 2 113781151.55 C22 C26S 11 nanMontreal, PQ / Chesterville, ON
2 1False Allison, Miss. Helen Loraine female 2 1 2 113781151.55 C22 C26S None nanMontreal, PQ / Chesterville, ON
3 1False Allison, Mr. Hudson Joshua Creighton male 30 1 2 113781151.55 C22 C26S None 135Montreal, PQ / Chesterville, ON
4 1False Allison, Mrs. Hudson J C (Bessie Waldo Daniels)female25 1 2 113781151.55 C22 C26S None nanMontreal, PQ / Chesterville, ON
[6]:

label_encoder = vaex.ml.LabelEncoder(features=['embarked'])
one_hot_encoder = vaex.ml.OneHotEncoder(features=['pclass'])
freq_encoder = vaex.ml.FrequencyEncoder(features=['home_dest'])

df = label_encoder.fit_transform(df)
df = one_hot_encoder.fit_transform(df)
df = freq_encoder.fit_transform(df)


[6]:

# pclasssurvived name sex age sibsp parch ticket farecabin embarked boat bodyhome_dest label_encoded_embarked pclass_1 pclass_2 pclass_3 frequency_encoded_home_dest
0 1True Allen, Miss. Elisabeth Walton female29 0 0 24160211.338B5 S 2 nanSt Louis, MO 1 1 0 0 0.00305577
1 1True Allison, Master. Hudson Trevor male 0.9167 1 2 113781151.55 C22 C26S 11 nanMontreal, PQ / Chesterville, ON 1 1 0 0 0.00305577
2 1False Allison, Miss. Helen Loraine female 2 1 2 113781151.55 C22 C26S None nanMontreal, PQ / Chesterville, ON 1 1 0 0 0.00305577
3 1False Allison, Mr. Hudson Joshua Creighton male 30 1 2 113781151.55 C22 C26S None 135Montreal, PQ / Chesterville, ON 1 1 0 0 0.00305577
4 1False Allison, Mrs. Hudson J C (Bessie Waldo Daniels)female25 1 2 113781151.55 C22 C26S None nanMontreal, PQ / Chesterville, ON 1 1 0 0 0.00305577

Notice that the transformed features are all included in the resulting DataFrame and are appropriately named. This is excellent for the construction of various diagnostic plots, and engineering of more complex features. The fact that the resulting (encoded) features take no memory, allows one to try out or combine a variety of preprocessing steps without spending any extra memory.

## Dimensionality reduction¶

### Principal Component Analysis¶

The PCA implemented in vaex.ml can scale to a very large number of samples, even if that data we want to transform does not fit into RAM. To demonstrate this, let us do a PCA transformation on the Iris dataset. For this example, we have replicated this dataset thousands of times, such that it contains over 1 billion samples.

[7]:

df = vaex.ml.datasets.load_iris_1e9()
n_samples = len(df)
print(f'Number of samples in DataFrame: {n_samples:,}')

Number of samples in DataFrame: 1,005,000,000

[8]:

features = ['petal_length', 'petal_width', 'sepal_length', 'sepal_width']
pca = vaex.ml.PCA(features=features, n_components=4, progress=True)
pca.fit(df)

[########################################] 100.00% elapsed time  :    25.39s =  0.4m =  0.0h
[########################################] 100.00% elapsed time  :    21.16s =  0.4m =  0.0h



The PCA transformer implemented in vaex.ml can be fit in well under a minute, even when the data comprises 4 columns and 1 billion rows.

[9]:

df_trans = pca.transform(df)
df_trans

[9]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ PCA_0 PCA_1 PCA_2 PCA_3
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 -0.51109806067797780.10228410712350186 0.1323278893222748 -0.05010053509219568
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 -0.89016044584583140.03381244392899576 -0.0097680272513406690.15344820595853972
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 -1.0432977815146882-0.22895691422385436 -0.4148145621997159 0.03752355212469092
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 -2.275853649499827 -0.33338651939283853 0.28467815929803336 0.062230280587310186
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 2.5971594761444177 -1.1000219272349778 0.1635819259153647 0.09895807663018358
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1,004,999,9955.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 2.639821267772449 -0.31929007064114523 -0.13925337154239886 -0.06514104661032082
1,004,999,9965.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 2.537573370562511 -0.5103675440827672 0.17191840827679977 0.19216594922046545
1,004,999,9975.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 -0.22887905008289270.402257616677128 -0.22736271123587368 -0.018620454169007566
1,004,999,9985.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 2.199077960400875 -0.8792440918495404 -0.1145214537809282 -0.025326936252885096
1,004,999,9996.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 -0.6416902785957136-0.019071179119340448-0.20417287643043353 0.02050967499165212

Recall that the transformed DataFrame, which includes the PCA components, takes no extra memory.

## Clustering¶

### K-Means¶

vaex.ml implements a fast and scalable K-Means clustering algorithm. The usage is similar to that of scikit-learn.

[10]:

import vaex.ml.cluster

features = ['petal_length', 'petal_width', 'sepal_length', 'sepal_width']
kmeans = vaex.ml.cluster.KMeans(features=features, n_clusters=3, max_iter=100, verbose=True, random_state=42)
kmeans.fit(df)

df_trans = kmeans.transform(df)
df_trans

Iteration    0, inertia  519.0500000000001
Iteration    1, inertia  156.70447116074328
Iteration    2, inertia  88.70688235734133
Iteration    3, inertia  80.23054939305554
Iteration    4, inertia  79.28654263977778
Iteration    5, inertia  78.94084142614601
Iteration    6, inertia  78.94084142614601

[10]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ prediction_kmeans
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 0
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 0
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 0
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 1
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 2
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1455.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 2
1465.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 2
1475.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 0
1485.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 2
1496.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 0

K-Means is an unsupervised algorithm, meaning that the predicted cluster labels in the transformed dataset do not necessarily correspond to the class label. We can map the predicted cluster identifiers to match the class labels, making it easier to construct diagnostic plots.

[11]:

df_trans['predicted_kmean_map'] = df_trans.prediction_kmeans.map(mapper={0: 1, 1: 2, 2: 0})
df_trans

[11]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ prediction_kmeans predicted_kmean_map
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 0 1
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 0 1
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 0 1
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 1 2
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 2 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1455.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 2 0
1465.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 2 0
1475.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 0 1
1485.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 2 0
1496.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 0 1

Now we can construct simple scatter plots, and see that in the case of the Iris dataset, K-Means does a pretty good job splitting the data into 3 classes.

[12]:

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12, 5))

plt.subplot(121)
df_trans.scatter(df_trans.petal_length, df_trans.petal_width, c_expr=df_trans.class_)
plt.title('Original classes')

plt.subplot(122)
df_trans.scatter(df_trans.petal_length, df_trans.petal_width, c_expr=df_trans.predicted_kmean_map)
plt.title('Predicted classes')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()


As with any algorithm implemented in vaex.ml, K-Means can be used on billions of samples. Fitting takes under 2 minutes when applied on the oversampled Iris dataset, numbering over 1 billion samples.

[13]:

df = vaex.ml.datasets.load_iris_1e9()
n_samples = len(df)
print(f'Number of samples in DataFrame: {n_samples:,}')

Number of samples in DataFrame: 1,005,000,000

[14]:

%%time

features = ['petal_length', 'petal_width', 'sepal_length', 'sepal_width']
kmeans = vaex.ml.cluster.KMeans(features=features, n_clusters=3, max_iter=100, verbose=True, random_state=31)
kmeans.fit(df)

Iteration    0, inertia  838974000.003719
Iteration    1, inertia  535903134.00030565
Iteration    2, inertia  530190921.4848897
Iteration    3, inertia  528931941.0337245
Iteration    4, inertia  528931941.03372455
CPU times: user 4min 7s, sys: 1min 33s, total: 5min 41s
Wall time: 1min 23s


## Supervised learning¶

While vaex.ml does not yet implement any supervised machine learning models, it does provide wrappers to several popular libraries such as scikit-learn, XGBoost, LightGBM and CatBoost.

The main benefit of these wrappers is that they turn the models into vaex.ml transformers. This means the models become part of the DataFrame state and thus can be serialized, and their predictions can be returned as virtual columns. This is especially useful for creating various diagnostic plots and evaluating performance metrics at no memory cost, as well as building ensembles.

### Scikit-Learn example¶

The vaex.ml.sklearn module provides convenient wrappers to the scikit-learn estimators. In fact, these wrappers can be used with any library that follows the API convention established by scikit-learn, i.e. implements the .fit and .transform methods.

Here is an example:

[15]:

from vaex.ml.sklearn import Predictor

features = ['petal_length', 'petal_width', 'sepal_length', 'sepal_width']
target = 'class_'

vaex_model = Predictor(features=features, target=target, model=model, prediction_name='prediction')

vaex_model.fit(df=df)

df = vaex_model.transform(df)
df

[15]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ prediction
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 1
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 1
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 1
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 2
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1455.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 0
1465.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 0
1475.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 1
1485.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 0
1496.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 1

One can still train a predictive model on datasets that are too big to fit into memory by leveraging the on-line learners provided by scikit-learn. The vaex.ml.sklearn.IncrementalPredictor conveniently wraps these learners and provides control on how the data is passed to them from a vaex DataFrame.

Let us train a model on the oversampled Iris dataset which comprises over 1 billion samples.

[16]:

from vaex.ml.sklearn import IncrementalPredictor
from sklearn.linear_model import SGDClassifier

features = ['petal_length', 'petal_width', 'sepal_length', 'sepal_width']
target = 'class_'

model = SGDClassifier(learning_rate='constant', eta0=0.0001, random_state=42)
vaex_model = IncrementalPredictor(features=features, target=target, model=model,
batch_size=11_000_000, partial_fit_kwargs={'classes':[0, 1, 2]})

vaex_model.fit(df=df, progress=True)

df = vaex_model.transform(df)
df

[########################################] 100.00% elapsed time  :   747.59s =  12.5m =  0.2h


[16]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ prediction
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 1
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 1
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 1
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 2
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1,004,999,9955.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 0
1,004,999,9965.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 0
1,004,999,9975.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 1
1,004,999,9985.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 0
1,004,999,9996.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 1

### XGBoost example¶

Libraries such as XGBoost provide more options such as validation during training and early stopping for example. We provide wrappers that keeps close to the native API of these libraries, in addition to the scikit-learn API.

While the following example showcases the XGBoost wrapper, vaex.ml implements similar wrappers for LightGBM and CatBoost.

[17]:

from vaex.ml.xgboost import XGBoostModel

df_train, df_test = df.ml.train_test_split(test_size=0.2, verbose=False)

features = ['petal_length', 'petal_width', 'sepal_length', 'sepal_width']
target = 'class_'

params = {'learning_rate': 0.1,
'max_depth': 3,
'num_class': 3,
'objective': 'multi:softmax',
'subsample': 1,
'random_state': 42,
'n_jobs': -1}

booster = XGBoostModel(features=features, target=target, num_boost_round=500, params=params)
booster.fit(df=df_train, evals=[(df_train, 'train'), (df_test, 'test')], early_stopping_rounds=5)

df_test = booster.transform(df_train)
df_test

[17]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ xgboost_prediction
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 1.0
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 1.0
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 1.0
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 2.0
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 0.0
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
80,3955.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 0.0
80,3965.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 0.0
80,3975.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 1.0
80,3985.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 0.0
80,3996.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 1.0

## State transfer - pipelines made easy¶

Each vaex DataFrame consists of two parts: data and state. The data is immutable, and any operation such as filtering, adding new columns, or applying transformers or predictive models just modifies the state. This is extremely powerful concept and can completely redefine how we imagine machine learning pipelines.

As an example, let us once again create a model based on the Iris dataset. Here, we will create a couple of new features, do a PCA transformation, and finally train a predictive model.

[18]:

# Load data and split it in train and test sets
df_train, df_test = df.ml.train_test_split(test_size=0.2, verbose=False)

# Create new features
df_train['petal_ratio'] = df_train.petal_length / df_train.petal_width
df_train['sepal_ratio'] = df_train.sepal_length / df_train.sepal_width

# Do a PCA transformation
features = ['petal_length', 'petal_width', 'sepal_length', 'sepal_width', 'petal_ratio', 'sepal_ratio']
pca = vaex.ml.PCA(features=features, n_components=6)
df_train = pca.fit_transform(df_train)

# Display the training DataFrame at this stage
df_train

[18]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ petal_ratio sepal_ratio PCA_0 PCA_1 PCA_2 PCA_3 PCA_4 PCA_5
0 5.4 3.0 4.5 1.5 1 3.0 1.8 -1.510547480171215 0.3611524321126822 -0.4005106138591812 0.5491844107628985 0.21135370342329635 -0.009542243224854377
1 4.8 3.4 1.6 0.2 0 8.0 1.411764705882353 4.447550641536847 0.2799644730487585 -0.04904458661276928 0.18719360579644695 0.10928493945448532 0.005228919010020094
2 6.9 3.1 4.9 1.5 1 3.266666666666667 2.2258064516129035-1.777649528149752 -0.60828897708458910.48007833550651513 -0.377620118668313350.05174472701894024 -0.04673816474220924
3 4.4 3.2 1.3 0.2 0 6.5 1.375 3.400548263702555 1.437036928591846 -0.3662652846960042 0.23420836198441913 0.05750021481634099 -0.023055011653267066
4 5.6 2.8 4.9 2.0 2 2.45 2.0 -2.32450987662220940.14710673877401348-0.5150809942258257 0.5471824391426298 -0.12154714382375817 0.0044686197532133876
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1155.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 6.999999999999999 1.52941176470588253.623794583238953 0.8255759252729563 0.23453320686724874 -0.17599408825208826-0.04687036865354327 -0.02424621891240747
1165.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 8.0 1.34210526315789474.42115266246093 0.222875055336637040.4450642830179705 0.2184424557783562 0.14504752606375293 0.07229123907677276
1175.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 3.33333333333333352.230769230769231 -1.069062832993727 0.3874258314654399 -0.4471767749236783 -0.2956609879568117 -0.0010695982441835394-0.0065225306610744715
1185.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 5.666666666666667 1.50000000000000022.2846521048417037 1.1920826609681359 0.8273738848637026 -0.210489464627257370.03381892388998425 0.018792165273013528
1196.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 3.30769230769230752.137931034482759 -1.29882299587484520.06960434514054464-0.0012167985718341268-0.240722552191808830.05282732890885841 -0.032459999314411514

At this point, we are ready to train a predictive model. In this example, let’s use LightGBM with its scikit-learn API.

[19]:

import lightgbm

features = df_train.get_column_names(regex='^PCA')

booster = lightgbm.LGBMClassifier()

vaex_model = Predictor(model=booster, features=features, target='class_')

vaex_model.fit(df=df_train)
df_train = vaex_model.transform(df_train)

df_train

[19]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ petal_ratio sepal_ratio PCA_0 PCA_1 PCA_2 PCA_3 PCA_4 PCA_5 prediction
0 5.4 3.0 4.5 1.5 1 3.0 1.8 -1.510547480171215 0.3611524321126822 -0.4005106138591812 0.5491844107628985 0.21135370342329635 -0.009542243224854377 1
1 4.8 3.4 1.6 0.2 0 8.0 1.411764705882353 4.447550641536847 0.2799644730487585 -0.04904458661276928 0.18719360579644695 0.10928493945448532 0.005228919010020094 0
2 6.9 3.1 4.9 1.5 1 3.266666666666667 2.2258064516129035-1.777649528149752 -0.60828897708458910.48007833550651513 -0.377620118668313350.05174472701894024 -0.04673816474220924 1
3 4.4 3.2 1.3 0.2 0 6.5 1.375 3.400548263702555 1.437036928591846 -0.3662652846960042 0.23420836198441913 0.05750021481634099 -0.023055011653267066 0
4 5.6 2.8 4.9 2.0 2 2.45 2.0 -2.32450987662220940.14710673877401348-0.5150809942258257 0.5471824391426298 -0.12154714382375817 0.0044686197532133876 2
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1155.2 3.4 1.4 0.2 0 6.999999999999999 1.52941176470588253.623794583238953 0.8255759252729563 0.23453320686724874 -0.17599408825208826-0.04687036865354327 -0.02424621891240747 0
1165.1 3.8 1.6 0.2 0 8.0 1.34210526315789474.42115266246093 0.222875055336637040.4450642830179705 0.2184424557783562 0.14504752606375293 0.07229123907677276 0
1175.8 2.6 4.0 1.2 1 3.33333333333333352.230769230769231 -1.069062832993727 0.3874258314654399 -0.4471767749236783 -0.2956609879568117 -0.0010695982441835394-0.00652253066107447151
1185.7 3.8 1.7 0.3 0 5.666666666666667 1.50000000000000022.2846521048417037 1.1920826609681359 0.8273738848637026 -0.210489464627257370.03381892388998425 0.018792165273013528 0
1196.2 2.9 4.3 1.3 1 3.30769230769230752.137931034482759 -1.29882299587484520.06960434514054464-0.0012167985718341268-0.240722552191808830.05282732890885841 -0.032459999314411514 1

The final df_train DataFrame contains all the features we created, including the predictions right at the end. Now, we would like to apply the same transformations to the test set. All we need to do, is to simply extract the state from df_train and apply it to df_test. This will propagate all the changes that were made to the training set on the test set.

[20]:

state = df_train.state_get()

df_test.state_set(state)
df_test

[20]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ petal_ratio sepal_ratio PCA_0 PCA_1 PCA_2 PCA_3 PCA_4 PCA_5 prediction
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 2.80000000000000031.9666666666666668-1.642627940409072 0.49931302910747727 -0.063088008066644660.10842057110641677 -0.03924298664189224-0.0273944397002728221
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 3.28571428571428562.033333333333333 -1.445047446393471 -0.1019091578746504 -0.018990122394938010.0209807676460904080.1614215276667148 -0.02716639637934938 1
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 3.538461538461538 2.2758620689655173-1.330564613235537 -0.419784747491312670.1759590589290671 -0.4631301992308477 0.08304243689815374 -0.0333517336774292741
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 2.71428571428571442.0303030303030303-2.6719170661531013-0.9149428897499291 0.4156162725009377 0.34633692661436644 0.03742964707590906 -0.0132542861962457742
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 6.999999999999999 1.30952380952380953.6322930267831404 0.8198526437905096 1.046277579362938 0.09738737839850209 0.09412658096734221 0.1329137026697501 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
255.5 2.5 4.0 1.3 1 3.07692307692307662.2 -1.25231200886008960.5975071562677784 -0.7019801415469216 -0.11489031841855571-0.036159457820878690.005496321827264977 1
265.8 2.7 3.9 1.2 1 3.25 2.148148148148148 -1.07923521659046570.5236883751378523 -0.34037717939532286-0.23743695029955128-0.00936891422024664-0.02184110533380834 1
274.4 2.9 1.4 0.2 0 6.999999999999999 1.517241379310345 3.7422969192506095 1.048460304741977 -0.636475521315278 0.07623157913054074 0.004215355833312173-0.06354157393133958 0
284.5 2.3 1.3 0.3 0 4.333333333333334 1.956521739130435 1.4537380535696471 2.4197864889383505 -1.0301500321688102 -0.5150263062576134 -0.2631218962099228 -0.06608059456656257 0
296.9 3.2 5.7 2.3 2 2.47826086956521772.15625 -2.963110301521378 -0.924626055589704 0.44833006106219797 0.20994670504662372 -0.2012725506779131 -0.0189004142877193532

And just like that df_test contains all the columns, transformations and the prediction we modelled on the training set. The state can be easily serialized to disk in a form of a JSON file. This makes deployment of a machine learning model as trivial as simply copying a JSON file from one environment to another.

[21]:

df_train.state_write('./iris_model.json')

df_test

[21]:

# sepal_length sepal_width petal_length petal_width class_ petal_ratio sepal_ratio PCA_0 PCA_1 PCA_2 PCA_3 PCA_4 PCA_5 prediction
0 5.9 3.0 4.2 1.5 1 2.80000000000000031.9666666666666668-1.642627940409072 0.49931302910747727 -0.063088008066644660.10842057110641677 -0.03924298664189224-0.0273944397002728221
1 6.1 3.0 4.6 1.4 1 3.28571428571428562.033333333333333 -1.445047446393471 -0.1019091578746504 -0.018990122394938010.0209807676460904080.1614215276667148 -0.02716639637934938 1
2 6.6 2.9 4.6 1.3 1 3.538461538461538 2.2758620689655173-1.330564613235537 -0.419784747491312670.1759590589290671 -0.4631301992308477 0.08304243689815374 -0.0333517336774292741
3 6.7 3.3 5.7 2.1 2 2.71428571428571442.0303030303030303-2.6719170661531013-0.9149428897499291 0.4156162725009377 0.34633692661436644 0.03742964707590906 -0.0132542861962457742
4 5.5 4.2 1.4 0.2 0 6.999999999999999 1.30952380952380953.6322930267831404 0.8198526437905096 1.046277579362938 0.09738737839850209 0.09412658096734221 0.1329137026697501 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
255.5 2.5 4.0 1.3 1 3.07692307692307662.2 -1.25231200886008960.5975071562677784 -0.7019801415469216 -0.11489031841855571-0.036159457820878690.005496321827264977 1
265.8 2.7 3.9 1.2 1 3.25 2.148148148148148 -1.07923521659046570.5236883751378523 -0.34037717939532286-0.23743695029955128-0.00936891422024664-0.02184110533380834 1
274.4 2.9 1.4 0.2 0 6.999999999999999 1.517241379310345 3.7422969192506095 1.048460304741977 -0.636475521315278 0.07623157913054074 0.004215355833312173-0.06354157393133958 0
284.5 2.3 1.3 0.3 0 4.333333333333334 1.956521739130435 1.4537380535696471 2.4197864889383505 -1.0301500321688102 -0.5150263062576134 -0.2631218962099228 -0.06608059456656257 0
296.9 3.2 5.7 2.3 2 2.47826086956521772.15625 -2.963110301521378 -0.924626055589704 0.44833006106219797 0.20994670504662372 -0.2012725506779131 -0.0189004142877193532